The pancreas is part of the gastrointestinal tract and at the same time a gland of mixed secretion. It responds to the ingress of food into the human digestive system by producing enzymes that are secreted into the duodenum and help the breakdown of food in the intestines. On the other hand, the gland produces the hormones insulin and glucagon, which are released into the bloodstream and maintain normal blood glucose levels.
What is pancreatitis and its forms
Pancreatitis is an inflammation of the pancreas, in which the tissue of the gland becomes inflamed, disrupting the process of production and entry of necessary enzymes into the intestines. The inflamed gland increases in size, its internal ducts narrow, which does not allow digestive juices to pass into the duodenum. The enzymes lingering in the gland begin, as it were, to break down the gland itself, which leads to sad consequences.
There is an acute form of pancreatitis, which is provoked by a violation of the diet or inflammatory diseases in the body and does not last long with proper treatment. If the action of irritating factors is prolonged or frequent, chronic pancreatitis occurs, which can develop after an acute process.
A comprehensive approach to the treatment of pancreatitis is used, and a special diet plays an important role in it, without which the effectiveness of treatment is extremely low.
Principles of the diet for pancreatitis
The principles of the diet for acute pancreatitis are that the first 3 days are generally recommended to observe hunger. During this time, the necessary nutrition is delivered by intravenous infusion without intestinal irritation. Food entering the intestines always leads to an increase in the production of digestive enzymes, and in acute inflammation it is important to reduce this activity as much as possible, after a few days the diet is gradually expanded. At first, only ordinary water, sometimes mineral water is allowed without gas, better alkaline, weak tea.
Then, for chronic pancreatitis from day 3, and for acute pancreatitis after day 5, the following provisions are used:
- the frequency of nutrition at least 5 times a day for uniform release of enzymes without a pronounced load and reduce inflammation;
- the amount of fats and carbohydrates decreases as much as possible towards an increase in protein products;
- the volume of food at one time is not more than 150-200 ml;
- use warm food 20-60 degrees, chopped or pureed;
- chew food thoroughly and take your time;
- do not drink during meals, limit salt to 4-5 grams per day;
- exclude foods that cause flatulence;
- for the purpose of chemical sparing, you must not use spices and hot seasonings;
- Use only cooked or baked foods without fried, smoked or canned ingredients.
Features of the diet for pancreatitis
It is important to remember that the diet for pancreatic pancreatitis must be observed constantly, otherwise the body will react with repeated inflammation and the consequences will be negative. In acute pancreatitis, the condition is very serious and death is not excluded.
Against the background of an increase in the proportion of protein products in the diet, the bulk of them should be animals in the form of turkey, chicken or young beef. Carbohydrates should be a little more than 300 grams per day with the restriction of ordinary sugar or jam, fats in a minimum amount, protein products make up more than half of the diet.
Allowed and prohibited foods on the diet for gastric pancreatitis
There are a lot of allowed foods on the diet for gastric pancreatitis, so the diet can be made as varied as possible:
- boiled or baked rabbit, calf and poultry meat (lean), boiled tongue;
- lean fish such as hake or pollock, boiled, baked or in the form of soufflé;
- cereals are different, preferably rice or oatmeal as part of cereals, soups or casseroles;
- bread after drying in the oven, biscuit baked goods, cooked pasta;
- milk and lactic acid products diluted with low fat content in the form of addition to main products or curd casserole, diet cheese and cottage cheese from skim milk;
- boiled or baked vegetables - potatoes and squash, beets or carrots, fresh pumpkin;
- eggs (protein only) in the form of omelets or casseroles, vegetable oil in moderation;
- fruits, ripe unsweetened or cooked in the oven, jelly or berry puree;
- weak drinks, diluted juices, rosehip fruit drinks.
The following foods are prohibited on a diet with exacerbation of pancreatitis:
- fried or grilled meat, all offal; lamb or goose meat, bacon and smoked meat, canned stew;
- seafood pickled dishes, rich fish broths or canned food;
- cooked dishes from legumes and rich broths;
- fresh bread, pastries, fried pies;
- natural fat sour cream, cream, large quantities of unsweetened milk;
- Garlic, mushrooms, radish are strictly prohibited (restricting turnips and fresh vegetables);
- egg yolks and fresh natural butter;
- lots of fresh sweet fruits, cabbage and sorrel;
- coffee, strong tea, concentrated lemonades and any carbonated drinks, alcohol of any strength or energy;
- ice cream, butter cream cakes, chocolate, any cakes;
- hot spices, marinades, sausages and smoked meats.
Diet contraindications for pancreatitis
Taking into account the peculiarities of the diet for gastric pancreatitis, there are contraindications to it.
They apply to patients with kidney disease or protein metabolism:
- with pyelonephritis or glomerulonephritis with decompensation of the process;
- patients with urolithiasis;
- in acute or chronic renal failure;
- in case of gout and purine base metabolism disorders;
- in the presence of multiple myeloma;
- with hormonal imbalance or thyroid problems;
- with precancerous background diseases, as excessive protein is dangerous for malignancy;
- with severe obesity or diabetes mellitus, especially with diabetic nephropathy, that is, kidney damage.
Due to the increase in the amount of protein products in the diet, the load on the kidneys increases and in the presence of chronic diseases their work is disrupted.
Diet for pancreatitis: menu for the week
Consider a sample diet menu for a week with acute or chronic pancreatitis of the pancreas.
- Breakfast.Porridge on water from ground buckwheat, boiled chicken breast. Curd pudding, weak tea.
- Lunch.Fruit puree, whipped in a blender, biscuit biscuits.
- Lunch.Rice groats puree soup, steamed veal cutlets, apricot jelly.
- Snack.Carrot casserole with tea.
- Dinner.Fish paste with oatmeal. Apple compote.
- Before bed.Currant juice.
- Breakfast.Mashed potatoes with mashed beef. Biscuits, fruit tea.
- Lunch.Protein omelet, carrot puree.
- Lunch. Ground buckwheat soup with rabbit meatballs. Zucchini casserole, weak tea.
- Snack.Salad from mashed beets, fruit juice with breadcrumbs.
- Dinner.Steamed turkey cutlets with pureed rice porridge. Kissel from apples.
- Before bed.Rosehip fruit drink.
- Breakfast.Oatmeal porridge without sugar. Carrot casserole with tea.
- Lunch.Baked apples with croutons and apricot juice.
- Lunch.Hake fish soup, mashed potatoes with sour cream. Pear jelly with croutons.
- Snack.Zucchini casserole with tea and biscuits.
- Dinner.Steamed rabbit cutlets with pureed buckwheat porridge. Currant compote.
- Before bed.A glass of kefir.
- Breakfast.Rice pudding with boiled beef. Tea with cookies.
- Lunch.Boiled beetroot salad with yogurt and biscuits.
- Lunch.Soup on a weak chicken broth with buckwheat. Vegetable meatballs, fruit jelly.
- Snack.Cottage cheese with skimmed sour cream, tea with marshmallows.
- Dinner.Vegetable casserole with pollock. Dried fruits compote.
- Before bed.Apple fruit drink.
- Breakfast.Oatmeal chopped porridge with steamed beef cutlets. Fruit pudding tea.
- Lunch.Steamed fish meatballs, apple jelly.
- Lunch.Rabbit soup with boiled meat. Pumpkin casserole with sour cream, tea without sugar.
- Snack.Protein omelet with apple juice.
- Dinner.Roll with turkey meat and vegetable stew. Tea with cookies.
- Before bed.Low-fat fermented baked milk.
- Breakfast.Boiled pasta with chicken pate. Unsweetened tea.
- Lunch.Pumpkin porridge with unsweetened yogurt.
- Lunch.Pumpkin and veal puree soup. Zucchini stew and cranberry jelly.
- Snack.Apple puree, a cup of kefir.
- Dinner.Steamed fish cakes with oatmeal. Tea with biscuits.
- Before bed.Apricot compote.
- Breakfast.Casserole with beef and vegetables. Ryazhenka with cookies.
- Lunch.Curd pudding and fruit puree.
- Lunch.Pumpkin and potato puree soup. Chicken meatballs with oatmeal. Fresh fruit compote.
- Snack.Carrot pudding with unsweetened tea.
- Dinner.Hake and zucchini casserole. Apple jelly.
- Before bed.Fresh fermented baked milk.
It must be remembered when drawing up menus and preparing food that the food must be fresh, and the methods of preparation must be boiling or baking. It is undesirable to combine different proteins at one time, and small portions are recommended to reduce the load on the pancreas.
Diet for pancreatitis: reviews of nutritionists
Reviews of nutritionists about the diet for pancreatitis are as follows. Its main details are aimed at reducing the nutritional load on the gland and reducing the production of digestive juice, which supports inflammation. In addition to these effects, such a diet prevents liver and biliary tract diseases, as it normalizes the frequency of bile secretion into the intestines. However, against the background of restrictions, one should remember about a sufficient amount of vitamins in the diet in order to avoid vitamin deficiency.
With a lack of own enzymes in the patient's body, the absorption of nutrients from food decreases. To correct the assimilation of nutrients, drugs containing the necessary enzymes in granular or encapsulated forms are used. Special medicinal capsules promote the action of enzymes in a specific place in the digestive system for maximum effect.
In acute pancreatitis, maximum chopping of food is important, but in chronic pancreatitis, to maintain the physiological work of the digestive tract, foods should not be finely chopped or wiped off ready-made foods, although heat treatment should be without frying or grilling. The more balanced the diet is, the less likely adverse outcomes are. In acute pancreatitis, the diet should be followed for at least 2-3 months; in chronic disease, it is desirable for life.